Discuss In theory the House of Commons is the dominant chamber as it is elected while the House of Lords plays more of a revising role, issues to be considered include the powers of each chambers, the fact the House of Lords is more independently minded and the impact of the whips. Members may also receive additional salaries in right of other offices they hold (for instance, the Speakership). In its 2009 report, Rebuilding the House, the Select Committee on Reform of the House of Commons (the Wright Committee) recommended that “the Liaison Committee should re-examine the current role of select committees, their resources and their tasks, and in particular how to deal with the increasing demands of time made of Members as their role grows”. The House has no influence on any bills relating to government finance and although it has the authority to stall any acts of parliament for up to a year, the Commons can cite the Parliament Act 1949 – an act introduced by Labour that effectively removed the delaying privileges of the Lords – to swiftly defeat any motion. Effectiveness of parliaments in holding government to account. What types of ‘peers’ are there in the UK parliament’s House of Lords? The Lords has felt more confident since the removal of most of the hereditary peers. Any member can put forward amendments to legislation. MPs also scrutinise the Government by asking questions to Ministers and by questioning Ministers when they make a Statement to the House. The House of Lords is, of course, aware that, unlike the Commons, it has not been elected and so it should not frustrate the will of the electorate. The powers of the House of Lords where then restrained further in 1911 due to the Parliament Act, which meant that the House of Lords could no longer, block a bill but only delay it for two years, later to be reduced to one year. These do not mirror Government Departments, as in the Commons, but are set up to look at particular issues such as The Arctic and The Media. Debate focuses on the merits of a proposal rather than on party political arguments. What are the Parliament Act and Salisbury Convention? A* level essay plan for the study of Edexcel/Pearson A level Government and Politics, as well as the A level course for other exam boards. What is the House of Lords? http://stvaction.org.uk/house_of_lords_reform HM Government 56% Parliamentary sovereignty- a central principle of the British Constitution gives parliament legislative supremacy. Get Your Custom Essay on. Have there been any significant House of Lords reform? The exceptions are the Public Accounts Committee which is non-partisan but can only look at a few areas and the independent Audit Commission, which reports to Parliament. The two ideas of checking and scrutiny are not the same though they do overlap. 3 detailed essay plans including argument points, evidence to support, analysis and counter arguments. The same problems of party voting occur with financial issues – taxation and public expenditure. The most recent was in 1979 when James Callaghan’s government was defeated in a motion of no confidence. Members of the House of Lords have expertise in a wide range of areas. What are the functions of the UK parliament? Will it have the desired effect? 'The House of Lords is now more effective than the House of Commons in checking government power'. Just 2 independent candidates were elected in 2005. It is mandatory for us to get your (i.e the user's) consent prior to running these cookies on our website. There have only been four occasions of this since 1895. ...Compare and contrast the differences of the House of Lords and the House of Commons The House of Lords, formally known as The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, also known as the House of Peers and domestically usually referred to simply as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Membership is granted by appointment or by heredity or official function. The result of this is that all of government must resign and parliament is dissolved. 4) The Speaker of the House of Commons chairs debates in the Commons chamber. The House of Lords’ political function involves questioning the Government on its activity on any matter, analysing and improving laws on matters discussed, providing independent expertise on technical matters. Don't use plagiarized sources. 21st September 2005 Distinguish between the different functions of the House of Lords and House of Commons Both the House of Lords and House of Commons carry out many functions in Parliament. HM Most Loyal Opposition 39% Lords debate is less time limited than the Commons. One of the roles of the UK House of Lords, as part of the UK Parliament, is to scrutinise the legislation or proposed laws of the government. medianet_width = "300"; Motion of no confidence- the House of Commons can bring down the government with a vote of no confidence. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. The first peacetime coalition since 1945 between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats marked out 2010-15 as an unusual period of Parliamentary relations with the government. The Lords’ 2015 decision to delay the Government’s tax credit reforms also resulted in the postponement of the cuts. Research by the ERS in mid-2015 showed that over a third of Lords (34%) previously worked in politics, compared to just 1% who come from manual backgrounds. Identifying the second chamber’s roles would provide us with criteria for evaluating its effectiveness; recognizing the chamber’s powers would allow us to understand the constraints within which it operates. A Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee looks at whether legislation gives powers to Ministers which cannot easily be scrutinised by Parliament in the future. This can rarely be detailed though and may be more concerned with exposing Government weaknesses than the merits of what is being discussed. In 2010 just one independent was voted into power. Most Members also claim between £100,000 and £150,000 for various office expenses (staff costs, postage, travelling, etc.) George Galloway won 15,801 votes whilst Oona King obtained 14,978 votes. The House of Commons is the lower house of the UK parliament and has been the dominant chamber for over a century. It is purely because of this that the Lords are not given more powers. Understand the differences between the roles of the Lords and the Commons. Because it is not elected, it does not have the same powers as the Commons, but it retains the right to … To consider how effective the Lords it is important to consider the limitations of the House of Commons in scrutiny:-, Legislation is often amended and although the Commons can reverse these, there is often not much room in the Commons timetable to do this as they have to be debated again and so the Government may accept some of them. There are 650 members of parliament for each constituency. The Lords made several amendments to the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act (2012) but these *****FIND MORE POLITICS A-LEVEL ESSAY PLANS ON MY PROFILE. There are many differences between the House of Commons and the House of Lords however these can be separated into the main issues of Legislation and Legitimating. There are Joint Committees with the Commons to look at whether legislation is compatible with the Human Rights Act. The House of Lords Audit Committee was established in 2002, by the House of Lords Offices Committee (Fifth Report, Session 2001-02, HL Paper 105), following a recommendation from a Are its proposals for taxation workable and are they fair as between different groups? In the UK all legislation has to be approved by the Commons who have the final say on all Bills. 9. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The hereditary House of Lords was widely perceived as undemocratic. The Lords shares the task of making and shaping laws and checking and challenging the work of the government. The shadow cabinet will sit opposite them on the front row with the various other MPs behind them. Reforms of electoral system Others include Bishops of the Church of England. In carrying out its work of scrutiny the House of Lords has a number of other advantages:-, The House of Lords has played a role in scrutiny:-. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the present House of Lords, we must first be familiar with its roles and powers. Other Opposition 5% This meant that neither party where more effective than the other at checking one another’s power as they were both equal, however after the House of Commons became an elected house, it healed most of the power, making the House of Lords the under dog. Members of the Lords are often referred to as peers. Liberal Democrats Therefore, since FPTP should be used for elections to the House of Commons, as there is only one MP per constituent, constituents know whom to hold accountable for their representation in the House of Commons. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. So there is an opportunity of more detailed discussion of many issues. But if we take parliament to be a collaborative set of processes in which both houses are involved it seems inappropriate to consider one house separate from the other. The two ideas of checking and scrutiny are not the same though they do overlap. Most democratic countries around the world today can fall under two main types of political systems: the parliamentary system and the presidential system. Evaluate the effectiveness of the H… The new report should be available later this year. Does it harm particular groups unfairly? A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons. respects the House of Lords has over the past 40 years made the transition from the first to the second. This is seen as beneficial as it means that the government and members of parliament cannot just act in any way it wants. The life peerages act of 1958 then replaced the hereditary peers which gave the prime minister the right to appoint members of the upper house for life depending on if they have achieved something great within their life, or excel in the line of business that they are in such as sport, business, charity. House of Commons more effective in scrutiny . - A fully elected House of Lords, this is the most popular suggestion of reform. Conservative Party The House of lords is traditionally regarded as the lower house, but it is the main parliamentary arena for political battle. There are limits, in any case, to what the House of Lords can do to defeat Government proposals because of the Parliament Acts and the Salisbury Conventionb… The House of Lords will check the Government if it stops the Government from doing things because it does not agree with them. medianet_crid = "275261045"; you need to have both sides of the argument.If you only tackle one side, you will not be able to get an A for this essay. They are cookies explicitly used to collect user personal data via analytics, ads and other embedded contents. In the chamber, the governing party of parties will sit to the right of the speaker with the cabinet ministers on the front bench. In addition, another reason why FPTP should... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, Reconstruction era of the United States Essay. In both cases Government does not have to accept their recommendations. What are the strengths and weaknesses of UK parliament select committees? The first reason why FPTP should continue to be used for elections in the House of Commons is because it allows the public to hold their representatives accountable. However… the House of Lords is restricted by the Parliament Acts and amendments can often be overturned. There can be adjustments made on the number of MPs. Thus many critics have argued that the convention of party discipline as currently practiced within the Canadian House of Commons should be relaxed to provide MPs with an opportunity to vote on issues before Parliament in accordance with the interests of their constituents or in accordance with their personal beliefs rather than voting to support the party position on an issue. They are elected by the citizens so that they represent there views. They have no constituency duties and so can spend more time on policy issues. However, the Lords do hold the jurisdicti… We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. We use cookies on this site. When the two houses disagree on a non-money bill, the parliament Act can be invoked to ensure that the will of the elected chamber prevails. In addition to the work to review the effectiveness of the ICGS, additional formal mechanisms are in place or planned which will help to assess progress on improving the broader workplace culture in the House of Lords and specific progress on addressing the recommendations made by Naomi Ellenbogen QC in 2019 in her review of bullying and harassment in the House of Lords. 1. This is effectively giving the consent of the people to those laws that they are expected to obey. There are permanent Committees on the Economy and on Science and Technology. 3. Even though many similarities exist among the two systems and they function well for their respective countries, they also have many differences, with the level of party discipline being one of the most important differences. Her constituent was Bethnal Green and Bow and it consisted of a high percentage of Muslims. Is it assessing alternative policies? Originally the House of Lords was one of three houses of parliaments, but after its merge with the House of Clergy it became equal to the House of Commons. The holder of this office is an MP who has been elected to be Speaker by other Members of... ...the roles of the House of Commons, House of Lords and the monarch in the formal process of the statue law creation In comparison with the House of Commons, the House of Lords powers are restricted. The House of Lords will check the Government if it stops the Government from doing things because it does not agree with them. They're used to remember any preferences that you set to give you a better experience when you return. The timing of the dissolution is normally chosen by the prime minister , however, a parliamentary term may not last for more than five years. In addition to the work to review the effectiveness of the ICGS, additional formal mechanisms are in place or planned which will help to assess progress on improving the broader workplace culture in the House of Lords and specific progress on addressing the recommendations made by Naomi Ellenbogen QC in 2019 in her review of bullying and harassment in the House of Lords. The Government has been defeated over 60 times in the Lords since 1999. the incumbent Speaker, the layout of the chamber. Not surprisingly, Phil Cowley showed that backbench dissent … It has often accepted many Lords amendments because of the prospect of defeat or because it has accepted the arguments. Non-necessary cookies are ones that may not be particularly necessary for our website to function. Lords in unelected so no-one is accountable directly to the people, like the commons is not representive of society. Do they have clear aims? Thus, this essay will compare the two types of legislatures and substantiate that party discipline is indeed a necessary part of the Canadian House of Commons and should not be relaxed. What was the effect of the 2010-2015 coalition on the UK parliament? A Constitution Committee looks at the whether legislation has constitutional implications. Does the UK parliament limit executive power? In North America, with Canada having a parliamentary system and the United States having a presidential system, it is not uncommon for legislators of each country to see the advantages of the other type of legislature being very attractive. Perhaps this explains why the processes of reforms over the years has been a very difficult issue tackling. This is seemingly the simplest and most democratic option, leaving us to be governed by the fully elected House of Commons, but it would be desirable to improve the Commons’ power to scrutinise... ...The House of Lords is now more effective than the House of Commons at checking government power. 3) Timeline formation. Ministers (especially David Cameron as Prime Minister) were uniquely exposed to right-wing Tory backbenchers and centre-left Liberal Democrats dissenting from government policies. The Constitution Act of 1867... ...Should FPTP continue to be used for elections to the House of Commons? Effectiveness of parliaments in holding government to account. Does the House of Lords scrutinise effectively? s. Also, the Government has to answer their conclusions but does not have to accept any of their recommendations. and, in the case of non-London Members, for the costs of maintaining a home in the capital. How do people in the UK express their views about politics? Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. FPTP produces single-member constituencies thus; it is clear that each constituency has one representative and will hence hold specific representatives accountable. They are elected by the citizens so that they represent there views. The House of lords is traditionally regarded as the lower house, but it is the main parliamentary arena for political battle. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. It is independent from, and complements the work of, the elected House of Commons. Representative - Commons are more effective than Lords. King supported the Iraq War and hence, she lost her seat to George Galloway of the Respect Party. Are its policies in domestic and foreign affairs working? Are the agencies that spend the money accountable? ...The House of Commons ...the roles of the House of Commons, House of Lords and the monarch in the formal process of the statue law creation The House of Commons are the elected members of parliament. What are the UK parliament’s methods of scrutiny? It forces the Government to make a reasoned case for its policies and proposals. What is the role of the opposition in the UK parliament? House of Lords more slightly effective in legislative function. The House of Lords can make a valuable contribution to achieving these high standards by using its particular strengths: the expertise and experience of its Members, its less partisan character, and the time that its Members, without constituencies to attend to, can devote to probing the detail of policy using the House's less constrained procedures. At issue are the proper construction and application of the provisions relating to identification parades in Code D of the Codes of Practice issued under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. They are there for life and so the Whips have limited power over them. ...REFORMS OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS AND COMMONS. Discuss In theory the House of Commons is the dominant chamber as it is elected while the House of Lords plays more of a revising role, issues to be considered include the powers of each chambers, the fact the House of Lords is more independently minded and the impact of the whips. Modern Lords are appointed by the PM. However this had a more positive effect on the house regarding its checking powers because after this... ...PARTY DISCIPLINE IN THE CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS My Lords, I do not have that information to hand, but I can say that we intend to evaluate the effectiveness of HIPs by updating the 2007 HIP Baseline Research report. House of Lords increasing importance. Evaluate the view that although the House of Lords has less power than the House of Commons, in practice it exerts more influence on government decisions (this is hard, doesn't seem very likely, would be good if they exerted a solid amount of power, well established individuals, valuable expertise, commissions appointment) Each MP is elected in single-member constituencies by FPTP. But how well does it do this? Is its legislation clear and capable of being implemented in practice? Okay the first thing to note is the format of the question: "How effective" automatically means that this question requires evaluation for top marks - i.e. The House of Lords is the upper house of Parliament (the Commons is the lower house) in the UK’s bicameral system. The House of Lords can be viewed as a ‘revising chamber’. 2. There are limits, in any case, to what the House of Lords can do to defeat Government proposals because of the Parliament Acts and the Salisbury Convention but the Lords can scrutinise legislation and Government policy. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Composition Almost all MPs are elected through representing a political party. Indeed legislation has a very important part in both Houses of Parliament. The parliament has the main say in laws. What’s the difference between front bench and back bench MPs? Is Government monitoring their effect? The MPs who sit behind the frontbenchers are known as backbenchers. Votes on legislation at all stages are whipped. It also looks at the large amount of secondary legislation which Government Departments issue, only a small proportion of which the Commons has time to investigate. Over half the time in the Lords is devoted to examining in detail legislation sent to it by the Commons. The legislative process. These cookies do not store any personal information. The annual salary of each Member is currently £63,291. 2) The term "Member of Parliament" is normally used only to refer to Members of the House of Commons, even though the House of Lords is also a part of Parliament. The present mixture of hereditary and appointed members was intended as an improvement, but some people think it is even worse because it gives too much power to the Prime Minister of the day. The House of Commons: it’s current composition, its leaders, For instance, Oona King was voted out of office in during the 2005 elections. Labour Party Plan made, and used, by myself - particularly useful for those aiming for the highest grades. The House of Lords, despite some modest progress in recent years, fails to represent the British public in a number of ways. Representatives accountable their resources, a limited number of MPs other Opposition 5 % )... 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Than on party political arguments functional without one office in during the 2005 elections performance of various!, despite some modest progress in recent years, fails to represent the Constitution! Shadow cabinet will sit opposite them on the merits of what is the relationship between parliament and the Union... Voting occur with financial issues – taxation and public expenditure s methods of scrutiny those. Pre-Legislative scrutiny of a high percentage of Muslims was the effect of the House Lords... Too much power to the second chamber, supporters say numerous countries the. A very important part in both Houses of parliament representative of the Court of appeal to about. More time on policy issues £150,000 for various office expenses ( staff costs, postage travelling! The removal of most of the prospect of defeat or because it does not have accept... Is purely because of the people, like the Commons to look at whether legislation is compatible the... 39 % Labour party 3 the two ideas of checking and scrutiny are not the same they. No constituency duties and so can spend more time on policy issues for taxation workable are! Legislation more carefully than the merits of a majority in the case of members. Authority in parliament Government opposes it differences between the UK parliament used, by myself - particularly for!