Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. She would have to have been re-betrothed to someone worthy. Antipater synonyms, Antipater pronunciation, Antipater translation, English dictionary definition of Antipater. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 14 June 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Antipater (son of Herod the Great) Antipater II ( Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. → Wikipedia entry 323/33 der shows anger towards Cassander and Iollas, the sons of Antipater. While he resented her interference, Alexander’s mother believed that Antipater was abusing his power as regent, behaving more like a king. Antipater had always been considered a trustworthy commander, representing Philip at Athens in 346 BCE. See more. Antipater accompanied Alexander when he faced an assembly of Macedonian troops. "Antipater." https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antipater-regent-of-Macedonia, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Biography of Antipater (397-319). Although Antipater and Alexander had their differences, nothing compared to the intense dislike that existed between Antipater and Olympias. Aware of the uprising in Thrace, Alexander ordered Antipater to quickly come to terms with the governor. The following year he was tried for plotting against Herod and Pheroras, Herod’s brother, and was executed five days before his father’s death. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. ANTIPATER (born 397 BCE – died 319) was a Macedonian general and trustworthy commander of Philip II of Macedon. Antípatros; c. 46 – 4 BC) was Herod the Great 's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Cite This Work Updates? In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. This division, however, was not to remain. Others were also implicated; allegedly Cassander brought the poison with him from Macedon hidden in a mule’s hoof and Aristotle supposedly prepared it. ). The young king would never return. Was it malaria, an old wound, his alcoholism, or, as many believed, poisoning? Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. Following his father’s death, Alexander found not only his ability but also the strength of Macedon’s control over Greece threatened. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving his unwavering loyalty for more than a decade. Thus Antipater succeeded in gaining his objects, although the Jewish state lost its independence in consequence. This son was also named Antipater and it was he who was the father of Herod the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Corrections? Although they had both been students together under Aristotle, Alexander resented the young man’s presence. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Omissions? Wasson, Donald L. Some of these men disliked Alexander only because his mother was not a true Macedonian. While in Babylon, Alexander became extremely ill after a late-night party - an illness from which he would never recover. The dispute was referred to Rome, and decision was given against Aristobulus. Their constant backbiting resulted in a parade of letters filled with accusations from Macedon to Alexander. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Oddly, Memnon (no relation to the Persian commander of the same name) eventually sent several thousand Thracian troops to assist Alexander. Antipater had great influence in Israel and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey the Great. However, peace at home would not remain for long. She is not heard from again as “Antipater’s daughter.” But she has blood rights being the granddaughter of King Antigonus and the daughter of Antipater the previous heir to the kingdom. Specify between which dates you want to search, and what keywords you are looking for. Sparta, who had never joined the League of Corinth, seized upon Alexander’s absence and instigated a revolt on the Peloponnese. License. By the settlement at Triparadisus, Syria (321), after Perdiccas’s death, Antipater became regent of the Macedonian Empire for the two kings: the intellectually disabled Philip III Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV. The Macedonian commander was victorious, wiping out all Spartan resistance. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/. One of the leading men in Macedonia at the death of Philip II in 336, he helped to secure the succession to the Macedonian throne for Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, who upon departure for the conquest of Asia (334) appointed Antipater regent in Macedonia with the title of general in Europe. He ruled Greece by cooperating with the League of Corinth but was unpopular because he supported oligarchic governments. The tension between the two increased when Cassander unknowingly laughed at seeing a number of Persians prostrating themselves before the king - an old Persian custom called proskynesis. 24 Dec 2020. Eventually, Cassander would take control of Macedon and before his own death in 297 BCE would execute not only Alexander’s wife Roxanne and son Alexander IV but also the ever-present and always outspoken Olympias. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. When Athens began to speak of the conditions of peace, Antipater insisted that only the victor sets the conditions and that each Greek city-state was to negotiate its own terms. To maintain authority in his absence, he left Greece and his beloved Macedon in the capable hands of Antipater as hegemon. The first few years of his reign were not easy for the young king. However, before he could realize his vision, he had to be assured of the army’s loyalty. Listening more to his mother than his commander, in 324 BCE Antipater was replaced as regent by the commander Craterus and ordered to appear before the king at Babylon. Antipater was from Edom. Related Content When each commander claimed part of Alexander’s empire for himself, Antipater took control of Macedon. Many of the veterans were tired of war, and Philip’s death meant that the war against Persia had been abandoned. While the young king and his army traveled northward to secure Thrace in 335 BCE, Antipater remained in Macedon, serving as his deputy. Antipatris was a city built by Herod the Great, and named in honor of his father, Antipater II of Judea. Antipater (ăntĭp`ətər), d. 319 B.C., Macedonian general. Trouble brewed in late 323 BCE with Antipater’s involvement against Athens and Aetolia in the Hellenic or Lamian War. With Antipater engaged elsewhere and unable to faced Agis himself, he sent the commander Corrhages to deal with the rebellious Agis. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. Herod was born 73 BCE as the son of a man from Idumea named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Eumenes was given Cappadocia and Paphlagonia (eastern Anatolia) to rule while Thrace (northeastern Greece) went to Lysimachus; Syria was given to Selecucos I. Both Antipater and Parmenio, however, urged Alexander to reconsider and wait until an heir was born to secure the throne. Antipater - regent of Macedonia, 323-319 B.C. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He was one of the ablest and most trusted lieutenants of Philip II Philip II, 382–336 B.C., king of Macedon (359–3 During a civil war in the Empire, Herod won the favor of Octavian, who later became the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar.Once he was king, Herod launched an ambitious building program, both in Jerusalem and the spectacular port city of Caesarea, named after the emperor. Unfortunately, Cassander was not named the heir. Following the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE, he was entrusted with the task of accompanying the young Alexander in taking the ashes of fallen Athenians killed in battle to the city. Wrong! Antipater II or Antipas ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 B.C.E. The philosopher and former tutor blamed Alexander for the death of Callisthenes, the court historian, who had been suspected in an earlier conspiracy to kill the king. After Philip’s assassination by the disgruntled Pausanias, a disagreement arose among the nobility as to who was the rightful heir to the throne of Macedon. Antipater, (born c. 397 bce—died 319), Macedonian general, regent of Macedonia (334–23) and of the Macedonian Empire (321–319) whose death signaled the end of centralized authority in the empire. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Antipater (c. 399-319 BCE) was a Macedonian statesman and loyal lieutenant of both Alexander the Great and his father Philip II of Macedon. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). However, Antipater and fellow commander Parmenio, who was in Asia Minor at the time, remained loyal to Alexander, so with the urging of his doting mother, Olympias, Alexander became king at the age of 20. His son Cassander, as always, remained at his side. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Arab Nabataean kingdom. Antipater then took the side of the Macedonian generals Antigonus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy, who were opposed to the claims of Perdiccas. Not everybody was convinced of these accusations, though. On June 10, 323 BCE, the great Alexander died. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Last modified June 14, 2016. To a man, they swore their loyalty. Years later, whenever Cassander saw a statue or painting of Alexander, he would faint. While in Thrace, word of Alexander’s supposed death made its way to the Greek city of Thebes and they revolted. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Aside from his role as hegemon or regent, Antipater was designated the headmaster of the School of Pages as well as assigned the daunting task of handling the finances of both the military and naval forces. The settlement of the satrapies (provinces) of the Macedonian Empire by the new regent, Perdiccas, at Babylon in 323, immediately after Alexander’s death, left Antipater in control of Macedonia and Greece, though as former regent his status in relation to Perdiccas was not clearly defined. With little alternative, Antipater reached an agreement with Memnon and headed southward. At a meeting presided by Antipater, several nobles voiced support for Amyntas, the son of Philip’s brother Perdiccas. He had planned to meet Darius’ commanders, Autophradates and Pharnabazus on the island of Siphnos to discuss an alliance, but the Persian defeat at Gaugamela ended any further discussion. Macedonian general and regent who governed the empire during Alexander the Great's military campaigns. 398?-319 bc. From. Antipater and Parmenion were instrumental in making Alexander leader of the Macedonians after his father Philip died. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. Aristotle is supposed to have made up this drug … and Antipater’s son Cassander is said to have brought it … and that it was given Alexander by Cassander’s younger brother Iollas (sp)… I put them down as such and do not expect them to be believed. He had served as governor of Edom during the reign of King Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah during the Hasmonean dynasty. Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great (l. 20 or... Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-Eyed") (382 -301... Cassander (c. 355-297 BCE, r. 305-297 BCE) was self-proclaimed... Demetrius I of Macedon, also known as Demetrios Poliorcetes, the... Lysimachus (c. 361-281 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great’s... Alexander the Great owed much to the influence of his parents... A History of the Hellenistic World: 323 - 30 BC [Blackwell History of... Alexander the Great and His Empire: A Short Introduction, Antipater's Dynasty: Alexander the Great's Regent and his Successors, Alexander's Heirs: The Age of the Successors, Dioscorides and Antipater of Sidon: The Poems, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The historian Arrian, who never believed the rumors, wrote, I am aware that much else has been written about Alexander’s death; for instance, that Antipater sent him some medicine which had been tampered with and that he took it, with fatal results. Alexander died without naming an heir or successor. Of course, the king was torn between his love for his mother and his respect of Antipater. The two men would never come to terms and fought bitterly over the next decade. The incident would haunt him for the remainder of his life. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. To some, the incident would be seen as insignificant, just another outburst by Alexander, if not for what would happen afterwards. He acquired great influence because of his father's position. In return for Antipater’s support, Caesar appointed him procurator of Judaea in 47 bc. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 14 Jun 2016. Antipater (399-319): supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in Europe during the eastern campaign of Alexander the Great, later regent for Alexander's mentally unstable brother Philip III Arridaeus. Antipater, (died 43 bc ), Idumaean founder of the Herodian dynasty in Palestine. Antipater died in 319 BCE at the age of 80. His son Cassander he appointed "chiliarch" and second in authority. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. Casualties for the Spartans and their allies numbered over 5,300 while 3,500 Macedonians fell. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. Allying himself with the Thessalonians and the Hellenic League, he convinced his hometown of Athens to go war against Macedon. Wasson, Donald L. Antipater gained power in Judaea by making himself useful to the Romans. Antipater I the Idumaean (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. 46 BC – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Ptolemy remained as regent in Egypt. Antipater, (born c. 397 bce —died 319), Macedonian general, regent of Macedonia (334–23) and of the Macedonian Empire (321–319) whose death signaled the end of centralized authority in the empire. Herod Antipater (Greek: Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament, although he never held the title of king. After the death of Alexander Janeueus his wife Queen Alexandra Salome ruled for a … Antipater. Antipater was born in 399 BCE as the son of a Macedonian nobleman named Iolaus. an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Maccabees 12:16; 14:22). 360 BCE 320 BCE 280 BCE 240 BCE 200 BCE 160 BCE 120 BCE 80 BCE 40 BCE. Instead, Antipater chose the commander Polyperchon because he believed his son to be too young to successfully oppose the other regents. When Alexander heard of the victory, he considered it insignificant. Antipater then took Hyrcanus with him to Aretas, who forthwith proceeded with a large army against Aristobulus, and defeated him. Josephus also does not say who Antipater’s daughter was then betrothed to in the second round. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. Craterus, Antipater’s replacement in Macedon, came to Antipater’s aid, and the siege at Lamia was broken. The defeated Spartan king was carried off the field of battle by his troops, dying from a spear wound. At a meeting presided by Antipater, several nobles voiced suppor… He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. [18.48.5] The office and rank of chiliarch was first raised to fame … Search through the entire ancient history timeline. Antipater (c. 399-319 B.C.) In 331 BCE, about the time Alexander was preparing to meet Darius at Gaugamela, King Agis III of Sparta joined with forces from Elis, Arcadia, and Achaea, and declared war on Macedon. Thus, Herod was of Arab origin, although he was a practicing Jew. (394 -395). Viewing this as a sign of disrespect, Alexander grew enraged and slammed Cassander’s head against a nearby wall. 323/66 The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia. Did he order his son Iolaus, the cupbearer to the king, to administer the fatal dose, for was it not Iolaus’s lover who had invited the king to the party? The coalition almost defeated Macedon. Aside from his role as hegemon or regent, Antipater was assigned the daunting task of handling the finances of both the military & naval forces. 323/35 According to rumours, Antipater persuades his sons to poison Alexande 323/45 iccas to be regent, with Craterus and Antipater in supporting roles. Antipater remained as regent of Macedonia while his son, Cassander, received Caria (southwestern Anatolia). "Antipater." Antipater and Agis met at Megalopolis, a city north of Sparta. Antipater definition, Macedonian statesman and general: regent of Macedonia 334–323. This immense power would not go unnoticed by the ever-present and always vocal Olympias; Antipater considered her a “sharp-tongued shrew.” Her attempts to meddle in governmental affairs would eventually force Alexander to intercede. While these factions would change over the next three decades, Antipater and his son initially sided with the commanders Ptolemy I and Antigonus I. Timeline Search. Alexander the Great, Marble Headby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). What is Antipater? Unfortunately, a serious disagreement between the two led to a once trusted commander being implicated in the suspected poisoning of one of history’s greatest leaders. His daughters were: Phila, Eurydice of Egypt and Nicaea of Macedon, while his sons were: Iollas, Cassander, Pleistarchus, Phillip, Nicanor, Alexarchus and Triparadeisus. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Did he willingly participate in a conspiracy to poison Alexander? As the young king stood before them and cried, he promised each of them glory and riches. Although Perdiccas possessed the king’s signet ring and took control of the body, factions soon developed. Ancient History Encyclopedia. As an aside, the Athenian orator Demosthenes, who had been so outspoken against both Philip and Alexander, was forced to escape Athens, later to commit suicide. He vehemently disagreed; it would be a disgrace, he felt, for the forces of Macedon to wait for the birth of a child. To Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much … Refusing to appear himself, he sent his son Cassander who made a number of valiant pleas on his father’s behalf. Books Definition and meaning:ANTIPATER an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22). Antipater’s main task was to hold the northern frontiers against hostile tribes and to keep order among the Greek states. Meanwhile, Antipater was being drawn into battle against Memnon, the military governor of Thrace who was seeking independence from Macedon. 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